Getting to Giza by bus:
From central Cairo, the optimum way to get to the Giza Pyramids using public mass transit options is by bus routes 355 or 357 - a large white, air-conditioned coach with CTA (Cairo Transport Authority) on the side. Traveling every 20 minutes from the airport and Heliopolis, the bus stops (or doesn't - you may have to flag it down!) at the Abdel Menem Riyad Station in Midan Tahrir, next to the Egyptian Museum, before continuing out to Giza and the Pyramids. Tickets costs LE 2 - a bargain!
Even cheaper and more interesting is taking the ordinary buses 990 or 997, costing 50 piastres, from the big central bus station close to the museum, ask people to find the correct lane. Be careful when about getting down, most people will be honest and help you, but you may encounter scammers who take you to their camels instead of to the pyramids. For 997, the correct spot is along a long avenue, after you're spotted the Pyramids and the bus has done a U-turn and then turned left — get off when you a see a blue sign for the Light and Sound show.
Getting to Giza by taxi:
It's possible to negotiate a taxi to take to you out to the Pyramids from any of the traveler-frequented parts of central Cairo - don't forget to haggle however. Taxi drivers will nearly always want to take you to see their "brother's" perfume shop, or their "father's" carpet warehouse on the way - if you don't want to waste time doing this, and being put on the spot to make a purchase - just make it very clear that you only want to see the antiquities.
Fortunately there are other Taxi options, which are the yellow ones and recently introduced white ones. These are metered and air conditioned. You might save yourself the hassle with the black and white taxis mentioned above, and at almost the same cost. On the other hand there are stories of drivers of white and yellow cabs fixing the meters, which would hardly be surprising given that it happens all over the world.
Getting to Giza by metro:
Metro Line 2 now runs from Cairo into Giza, although it doesn't go all the way to the Pyramids. Get off at Giza station (not the terminus!) and ask around for minibuses for the remaining 10 km, 15-20 min trip to the Pyramids (al-haram).
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